Of the Peoples Assembly of the Parliament of the republic of Abkhazia
The Statehood of Abkhazia is more than 1500 years old. The history of the Abkhazian State and indigenousness of its people is universally recognized in the world history and ethnography.
The Abkhazian State played an important role in the political and economic life of the Caucasus in the medieval period. After the end of Russian-Caucasian war in 1864 the Abkhaz statehood was liquidated, major part of Abkhaz people was deported from the country, transforming Abkhazia into the colony of the Russian Empire.
Superior body of the authority of Abkhazia – Abkhaz National Council was elected after the collapse of the Russian empire 8th of November 1921, then it adopted the Constitution and the Declaration of the Abkhaz nation, and on the 11th of May 1918 an independent Abkhaz statehood was restored.
In June 1918 the troops of Democratic Republic of Georgia which was proclaimed on May 26th 1918, occupied the territory of the Abkhazian State. Abkhazian people rose to an armed struggle, and in 1921 released its country from the Georgian occupation. In the same year the Red Army troops entered the territory of the South Caucasus, and on March 4th 1921 Soviet Power was established in Abkhazia.
On March 31st 1921 an independent Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia was proclaimed. On May 21st 1921 SSR of Georgia recognized independence of Abkhazian SSR and adopted the Declaration of Independence of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia. The Abkhazian SSR was a co-founder of the Soviet Union on the rights of a sovereign state, and signed the USSR Treaty in December of 1922.
In the national-territorial structure of the former Soviet Union the nations were divided by grade ("autonomous", "alliance", etc.) and strictly subordinated to each other in a hierarchical order. According to that gradation Abkhazia contrary to the will of its people, in 1931 was incorporated into artificially created "mini-empire" - Georgian SSR.
Flouting of the sovereign rights of Abkhazia, reduction of its status to autonomous republic within the Georgian SSR caused massive national resistance and led to a nationwide gathering. The resistance of the Abkhaz people, which has begun to take nature of the fighting, was crushed, and the leaders were repressed.
Since that time one of the darkest periods began in the recent history of the Abkhaz people. Abkhazia has been subjected to terror and repressions that led to the destruction of the political and intellectual elite of the Abkhaz people. The policy of georgianisation of the Abkhaz has begun: Abkhazia has been declared a historic region of Georgia and the Abkhaz people to be ethnographic group of Georgian nation, the Abkhaz schools were closed, teaching in schools has been conducted in Georgian, Abkhaz toponyms totally were replaced into Georgian and etc.
In particular the policy of assimilation and resettlement was conducted.
For the period from 1937 till 1953, more than 80 thousands of Georgians were resettled from Georgia to Abkhazia, radically changing the ethnic demographic map of Abkhazia.
Abkhazian people never accepted such oppressive approach and over the period after the loss of their independence they waged selfless struggle against the Russian Empire, and against totalitarian communist system for the inalienable right to freedom and a dignified life and restoration of its statehood. National liberation struggle of Abkhaz people had been expressed in the national armed uprisings at the time of the Russian Empire (1866-1867, 1877-1878's.), and during Communist totalitarian regime, with periodic mass demonstrations, rallies, strikes, hunger strikes (1931, 1957, 1964, 1967, 1978, 1989.), and this struggle continued till the collapse of the Soviet Union.
Since the adoption in 1991 of the Act on restoration of the state independence of Georgia, by which Georgia was proclaimed a successor of the Georgian Democratic Republic 1918-1921's., and the collapse of the USSR in 1992 the state-legal relations between Abkhazia and Georgia that were established and regulated on the bases of the Soviet legislation were halted. De-jure and de-facto, not related to each other two independent states emerged in the territory of the former Soviet Georgia which were Georgia and Abkhazia. Absence of any state-legal relations between Georgia and Abkhazia, after the collapse of the Soviet Union was also confirmed in “the Statement on measures for a political settlement of the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict” signed by the Georgian and Abkhaz sides on the 4th of April 1994, with the mediation of the United Nations, the Russian Federation and participation of the OSCE (CSCE). Hence, the recognition by the United Nations of the territorial integrity of Georgia on the 31st of July 1992, along with Abkhazia within the boundaries of non-existing at that time Stalin's Soviet Georgia, has no legal grounds.
On the 14th of August 1992 Georgian Government in response to an appeal of Abkhazian Government to review aborted state-legal relations by peaceful, civilized means and establishing equal and good neighborly relations between two countries, has launched armed aggression against Abkhazia. All multi-ethnic population of Abkhazia had to protect their right to life. Having won the bloody liberation war, the people of Abkhazia won its independence and reiterated unwavering determination to defend their inalienable right to freedom and a dignified life.
During the entire post-war period all efforts of the authorities of the Republic of Abkhazia, aimed at concluding a peace treaty and establishing civilized, good-neighborly relations between the Republic of Abkhazia and the Republic of Georgia, were completely blocked by the authorities of Georgia. At present, the Abkhaz-Georgian negotiations have been stalled, and that was confirmed at a meeting of the UN Security Council on January 23, 2008.
The Republic of Abkhazia successfully exists as an independent state for already 15 years. The formation and legal registration of the state independence of Abkhazia took place in full compliance with the recognized norms of international law.
On the 3rd of October 1999, referendum was held in Abkhazia, which was attended by most pre-war population. Based on the will of the absolute majority the “State Independence of the Republic of Abkhazia” was adopted on the 12th of October 1999, which was the turning point of the development in the modern history of Abkhazia. The people of Abkhazia once again strongly reaffirmed their commitment to achieve a true state independence, willingness and ability to decide and determine future of their country.
During the years independence, Abkhazia has shown its commitment to universally recognized principles of democracy, respect for fundamental human rights and freedoms, and desire to be a worthy partner in commonwealth of democratic nations of the world. All of the post-war years, in the conditions of unprecedented pressure from the International Community, isolation and blockade, the population of Abkhazia demonstrated significant viability as an independent community with its problems and challenges inherent in the transitional period of formation. The Republic of Abkhazia has been formed as an independent, democratic, constitutional state and truly possesses all the attributes of power, formed with the observance of democratic standards. The democratic institutions, civil society, an effective legal system successfully operate and develop, which is relevant to rules of international law, free media functions, as well as legal opposition. All multi-ethnic population of Abkhazia uniquely identifies itself as citizens of their own state. The economy of Abkhazia operates and develops independently. Every effort is made for the protection of human rights and freedoms, ensuring all the necessary conditions to protect the identity and development of ethnic minorities in Abkhazia.
However, international non-recognition of Abkhazia creates exceptional difficulties in its sustainable development and a threat to its national security. An illegitimate recognition by the UN of Georgia's territorial integrity within the borders of the Stalin’s created Soviet Georgia, openly justifies the Stalinist totalitarian regime and the promotion of aggressive tendencies of Georgian authorities against Abkhazia. These invading aspirations of Georgia are today a major source of escalating tensions that threaten peace and security in the region.
The Parliament of the Republic of Abkhazia notes that the process of establishing an independent democratic state of Abkhazia and achieving international recognition is irreversible. Restoration of the state independence of Abkhazia has deep, objective, historical preconditions. It is political expression of the achieved level of national unity, socio-economic and cultural development of the Abkhaz Nation. Only within the independent state people of Abkhazia see the possibility of further development and achievement of strategic goals and ensuring national security. In current political environment, any attempt to take so hardly won independence and sovereignty from people of Abkhazia that sacrificed so much, will inevitably lead to a major regional armed conflict, involving neighboring countries.
The Parliament of the Republic of Abkhazia appreciates the role of the UN Secretary General, the Group of Friends of the UN Secretary General, the Russian Federation, European Union, the CIS countries in the promotion of peace and security in the South Caucasus and the peaceful resolution of existing armed conflicts in the area.
The Parliament of the Republic of Abkhazia reaffirms commitment to peaceful, equal and good neighborly relations between the Republic of Abkhazia and the Republic of Georgia. These positive intentions are also clearly confirmed by the plan on the settlement of the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict: “Key to the future” prepared by the Abkhaz side. Government of Abkhazia also confirms its positive intentions implementing this Plan unilaterally.
Considering the aforementioned:
• based on the fundamental principle of the right of nations to self-determination;
• Based on the fact that the UN has condemned colonialism and any related practices of segregation and discrimination, and that the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples proclaims, in particular, the need to quickly and unconditionally end to colonialism;
• Taking into account the fact that according to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the ideal of free human beings without fear and need, can only be achieved if conditions are created whereby everyone may enjoy his economic, social and cultural rights as well as civil and political rights;
• Taking into account the fact that the UN Charter is based on the principle of equality and dignity of all people and aimed at achieving international cooperation through development and encouraging respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, language or national origin;
• Taking into account the need to facilitate the establishment and development of friendly relations between the peoples of the region;
• Taking into account that formation and the development of the Abkhaz State occurs in full accordance with international law;
• Taking into account the historical realities of the formation and development of Abkhaz statehood and the political-legal basis for the existence of the Republic of Abkhazia;
• Taking into account that international recognition of the independence of the Republic of Abkhazia will serve peace and stability in the Caucasus –
People's Assembly - The Parliament of the Republic of Abkhazia appeals to the Secretary General of the United Nations, the Chairman of the UN Security Council, the parliaments of the of the countries of the world to consider the recognition of the Republic of Abkhazia as an independent, sovereign state and the establishment of mutually beneficial inter-state relations with the Republic of Abkhazia.
People's Assembly - The Parliament of the Republic of Abkhazia
7 of March 2008. Sukhum