Constitution of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, 1 April 1925



1. After overthrowing a power of a former Georgian Democratic republic on the territory of Abkhazia, the workers, peasants and soldiers of a Red Army of Abkhazia have founded the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia and established sovereignty and dictatorship of the proletariat rendering all state power to the Councils of workers’, peasants’ and soldiers’ deputies.

4. The Abkhaz SSR, united on the basis of Union Treaty with the Georgian SSR, enters Trans-Caucasus Soviet Socialist Federative Republic through the Georgian SSR and as a member of latter, the USSR.


5. The Abkhaz SSR is a sovereign state, which exercises state authority on its territory independently from any other powers.

The sovereignty of the Abkhaz SSR that voluntarily entered the Trans-Caucasus SFSR and the USSR is restricted only within the frame of the Constitution of the mentioned Unions.

The citizens of the Abkhaz SSR, retaining the citizenship of the Republic, at the same time have the status of the citizens of the Trans-Caucasus SFSR (Soviet Federation Socialist Republic - edit.) and the USSR.

The territory of the Abkhaz SSR shall not be changed without consent of the Republic.

The language of state institutions on the territory of the Abkhaz SSR is Russian.


44. The Abkhaz Soviet Socialist Republic is governed by the Council of People’s Commissars under the Chairmanship of a special person - a member of Central Executive Committee comprising of the following Commissars: 1) Internal Affairs, 2) Justice, 3) Education, 4) Health-care; 5) Agriculture and 6) Social security.

The Council of People’s Commissars also includes the Chairman on the Supreme Council of National Economy and plenipotentiary representatives of the Commissars of Finance, Workers and Peasants Inspection, Labour and Internal Trade and the Chairman of the Special (extraordinary) Commission.

45. The management of departments of Foreign Affairs, Military and Maritime Affairs, Foreign Trade, Transportation, Post and Telegraph is under the jurisdiction of the relevant Commissars of the USSR.


65. All of the issues of general character are under the jurisdiction of the Congress of the Councils of the Abkhaz SSR and Central Executive Committee  outside of the jurisdiction of the Trans-Caucasus SFSR and the USSR, in particular:

a) General management of internal policy of the Abkhaz SSR;

b) Administrative division of the territory of the Abkhaz SSR;

c) Establishment of the bases for the public economy and certain branches on the territory of the Abkhaz SSR;

d) Consideration of the budget of the Abkhaz SSR and determination of taxes and duties with the endorsement of the TCSFSR;

e) Internal state legislation, judiciary, courts, criminal and civil legislation and others…

f) Appointment and removal of certain members of the Council of People’s Commissars, as well as the whole Council of the People’s Commissars, and also approval of the Chairman of the Council of people’s Commissars;

g) The right of Amnesty on the territory of the Abkhaz SSR, as well as the right of pardon and rehabilitation of citizens convicted by courts or administrative agencies of the Republic;

h) The right to issue decrees on rendering or removal of citizenship of the Abkhaz SSR;


66. Under the sole jurisdiction of the Assembly of Councils of the Abkhaz SSR are the following issues:

a) Changes and amendments to the basics of the Abkhaz SSR Constitution;

b) Issues related to the changes of the border of the Abkhaz SSR in conformity with the laws of the USSR and the TCSFSR.


- Congresses of the Soviets of the USSR,  Union and autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics of the Transcaucas. Collection of documents of 1923-1937; M., 1964, v.VI, p.686-700/in Russian




Articles & Opinion


Abkhaz World

Follow Us